Endometrial cancer

Endometrial cancer is one of the most common gynaecological cancers in Hong Kong, it is more commonly occurs in women age over 40.

Structure of uterus is composed of three layers, namely endometrium, myometrium, and perimetrium. Endometrial cancer is a disease when there is a malignant tumor in the innermost layer (endometrium) of the uterus.

High risk factors for endometrial cancer

  •  Age over 40
  •  Obesity (especially with BMI>30)
  •  Genetics e.g. HNPCC
  •  Diabetes
  •  Endometrial hyperplasia/polycystic ovary
  •  Have never given birth
  •  Women received hormone therapy

There are no obvious symptoms during early stage of endometrial cancer. However, symptoms related to menstruation and abdominal discomfort may appear as tumor grows.

Common symptoms of endometrial cancer

  •  Abnormal menstrual cycle
  •  Abnormal bleeding (heavy menstrual bleeding / postmenopausal bleeding)
  •  Weight loss
  •  Tiredness
  •  Abdominal pain

Diagnostic procedures for endometrial cancer

  •  Biopsy (collection of endometrial tissues for testing)
  •  Vaginal ultrasound
  •  Computer tomography(CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI)

There is currently no effective screening for detection of early-stage endometrial cancer. Therefore, women age over 40 who experience abnormal vaginal bleeding should seek medical attention from gynaecologists for diagnosis and timely treatment as soon as possible.